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最新版新增产业禁限目录来了—— 北京:产业选择有力度有温度

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 北京城市文化竞争力全国居首 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

北京市区联手规范房源信息发布 17家房地产经纪机构被查处

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

《飞马》是一部19世纪先驱摄影师埃德沃德.迈布里奇的传记电影,该片是加里.奥德曼近20年来执导的首部电影,也是他人生中的第二部作品。影片聚焦于迈布里奇的妻子芙洛拉以及被他杀害的戏剧评论家哈利.拉金斯之间的绯闻。电影目前尚未确定出演阵容,但奥德曼一直在争取拉尔夫.费因斯以及本尼迪克特.康伯巴奇。奥德曼本人将扮演迈布里奇的检察官。
5.射击类比赛项目
很多宏伟壮观的博物馆坐落在布鲁日、安特卫普和布鲁塞尔等风景如画的城市中。艺术爱好者可尽情徜徉在中世纪时期的大量艺术瑰宝中。同时,你也不要错过造访宁静小镇、参观哥特式建筑的机会。比利时拥有世界上最好的啤酒、巧克力以及薯条,因此,在那里人人都是美食家。随着第一次世界大战爆发100周年纪念日的临近,未来几年,比利时将成为更多游客的首选。
同时,该官员称,由于中央政府鼓励更多的大学毕业生到市县工作,今年的招录岗位中,有78%是区、县级的工作。
But Schultz didn't stop there. The chief executive also offered free coffee for a few days during the shutdown to customers who bought someone else their drink. Schultz hoped the campaign would help people "connect with one another, even as we wait for our elected officials to do the same for our country."
Man got to tell himself he understand.
徐成光在新闻发布会上表示,截至上午10时20分,已打捞出97具遗体。

n. 平台,站台,月台,讲台,(政党的)政纲
adj. 暂时的,临时的
LBS tops the ranking of the best 81 business schools in Europe based on the schools’ performance in four of the rankings published by the FT each year: MBA, executive MBA (EMBA), masters in management (MiM) and executive education. (Two schools tied for 80th position with identical scores.)
去年2月份中国国家旅游局启用一个名为“美丽中国”的标志,意在向海外宣传推广其旅游形象,然而有人讽刺“美丽中国”这一名称与中国城市在严重污染之下那一张张“不太美丽”的照片相比反差太大。希望专家们今后能设计出一个好一点的方案来。
否则,就应该交易考辛斯还有在过去的两个赛季里签下的其他的老将了。

Footnotes

  • 全国216家卫浴企业被列入“黑名单”
  • 此外,该报告还指出,雨果博斯、雪佛兰和舒洁则跌出了该榜单。

Europe fell into a debt crisis. Japan faced a natural disaster. Emerging markets, once the bright spots on the global landscape, lost their glow. Political crises from Italy to Egypt to Thailand raised the prospect of another round of global unrest.
在美国发起反倾销案件比在欧盟容易得多。在欧盟,企业必须先通过公众利益测试。
愿新年不仅是你欢笑的时刻,更是你欣喜的日子。祝福你。
poised
The students were very experienced, commented one graduate. Networking and interaction among everyone involved were key aspects of this programme.
That was a less marked jump than the 3 percentage point rise from August to September, however, suggesting recent curbs to property purchases may be having some effect.

橱柜业向“整体家居”迈进 逐渐进入成熟期

References

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