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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

24 August

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与IBM合作,将iPad和iPhone销售给大企业客户,只是苹果在库克领导下打破自身藩篱的一个例子,而这是乔布斯一直不愿做的。
7.You Haven't Gotten a Raise in the Last Two Years
[in'spai?ri?]

['triti]
But I know your generation, unlike any other generation in the past, is most eager to look at life differently. So as you leave school, I offer you a list of some obvious-yet-vastly-ignored truths that may help you look at life a little differently than just a series of paychecks:
I'm pleased to see manufacturing jobs returning to the U.S., but I don't expect the manufacturing industry to have the galvanic effect on the economy that many hope for. Why? Because automation will sharply erode the number of jobs any factory requires. The disappearance of blue-collar and entry-level jobs is already a problem, and that problem will grow.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

五问集体租赁住房:配套金融体制要跟上

In the original casting, Michael Keaton was set to play the character. However, ABC executives begged the writers and producers to keep Jack alive. They believed the character was too likeable to die off so quickly. The writers agreed. Michael Keaton was not interested in signing up for a long-running show. Instead, the role of Jack was given to Matthew Fox. The rest is TV history.
最佳电影提名应该可以肯定。参演《至暗时刻》的加里?奥德曼是最佳男主角的最热人选,如果说有谁能击败他的话,那可能就是蒂莫西?柴勒梅德了。
《速度与激情6》帮助其另外两位男演员在我们榜单中获得较高的排名:范·迪塞尔(Vin Diesel)和已故的保罗·沃克(Paul Walker)。迪塞尔以8.87亿美元位居我们榜单第四。《速度与激情6》在全球斩获7.89亿美元的票房。仅仅几个月之前,他出演的《星际传奇3》(Riddick)在各大影院上映,仅收入9,800万美元票房,不过,这也足以使迪塞尔的排名领先于他的搭档沃克。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

[i'nili]
n. 史诗,叙事诗 adj. 史诗的,叙事诗的,宏大的,
Written instructions apparently issued by China’s tourism administration, shown to the FT by one Beijing travel agent, order agencies to cancel group tours to South Korea booked for after March 15 and add that companies not in compliance could be fined or have their licences revoked. The tourism administration was not immediately available for comment.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 中国约占世界黄金产量的15%,这个比例高于沙特占石油市场的比例。但自2016年以来,中国当局收紧了对黄金开采的审查,导致中国的小型金矿纷纷关闭。
  • 上海家装验收规范新标准出台
  • 其次,麦克德莫特是一名职业生涯三分命中率39.9%的投手,解决了雷霆阵容最大的一块短板——拉塞尔-威斯布鲁克周围缺乏投手,而且他直到下个赛季结束都是便宜的新秀合同。
  • 广东公积金贷款放宽 楼市利好增多现“时光盘”
  • 中科院发布经济预测 房价仍将延续稳增态势
  • 2014届大学毕业生工作半年后,平均月收入为3487元,较2013届的3250元、2012届的3048元有了较大增长。
    After working for half a year, the average monthly income for 2014 graduates is RMB3,487, a significant increase from RMB3,250 in 2013 and RMB3,048 in 2012.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 2015年10月全国建材家居景气指数同比下降11.94点, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

北京市规土委回应“欧尚欧花园”违建

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

房企蓄力迎战“金九银十” 大牌房企蓄势待发

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • [?'naunst]
    Five schools from five different countries are ranked for the first time. Singapore’s Lee Kong Chian School of Business is the highest new entrant coming straight into 36th place. Canada’s Queen’s Smith School of Business registered the best progression, climbing 32 places to 67th.
  • In 2010, the Martin Aircraft Company introduced a jetpack it called "the world's first piratical jetpack." The jetpack even won a spot in Time's Top 50 Inventions of 2010. While its development has been on since 1981, the world's first jetpack is known to have flown in 1958. It was designed by Wendell Moore, a researcher at Bells Aerosystems. Early prototypes of Wendell's jetpack could reach a height of 5 meters (16 ft) and remain airborne for three minutes. This attracted the attention of the US Army, which funded the project with $150,000. Several test flights were later done for the US Army and even for JFK himself. The army later stopped paying for more research into the project because the flight time and distance were not convincing enough. NASA also wanted to use the jetpack for their Apollo 11 mission to serve as backups in case their lunar module malfunctioned. They later changed their minds, going for the lunar rover instead. After this setback, Bell discontinued further research on the jetpack.
    随着《喜羊羊与灰太狼》大电影第二部《喜羊羊与灰太狼之虎虎生威》的上映,这部空前火爆的国产动画再度成为众人关注的焦点。你知道怎么用英文介绍《喜羊羊与灰太狼》么?I
    The block chain has such rich potential that there is an initiative underway to create additional “side chains,” though there is controversy around that idea. “We don’t really want to mess with the main block chain right now,” says Adam Ludwin, CEO of Chain, a block chain API that makes it easier to create bitcoin applications. “It works, we don’t want to break it.”
    vt. 避免,逃避
    也许经济增长率是否能达到3%的国内最大威胁是利率的突然调整,但是从各方面的预测来看鸽派的美联储在2015年不太可能会采用挑衅的利率策略。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 楼市“限购令”退出历史舞台 家居建材业刺激有限
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 2017年绿色建材产业规模预估将超万亿元

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Jacobs vowed at the meeting to improve management and cooperation with the association to enhance the credibility of the science. He stressed the publisher was not targeting China, as it had also retracted papers by experts from other countries, the statement said.
新兴市场吸收的外国投资已降至金融危机以来最低水平,投资者准备迎接美国近10年来首次加息的冲击波。
GDP reached 74.4 trillion yuan, representing 6.7-percent growth.
去年我国内地人口总数达13.7亿,与2010年进行人口普查时相比,人口数量增加了3377万,这意味着人口年增长率为0.5%。
来自用卫星采集的独立温度测量结果没有显示2014年是记录年,但是接近记录。几位科学家说,卫星测量的数据反映的是大气层的温度,而不是地球的表面温度,所以卫星数据会与来自地面和海洋表面的测量结果略有不同,并不奇怪,而表面的温度测量显示了创记录的温暖。
"We have searched for Richard and we have found him. Now it's time to honour him," she said.
有人会认为卡莉·西蒙演唱的《海底城》的主题曲最好听。他们可能有自己的理由,可能是因为这是"邦德电影中最好听的歌曲"。曲调欢快、充满吸引力、浪漫抒情,卡莉西蒙的演唱打动人心。但是这些对詹姆斯·邦德、他的冒险旅程、他的来历甚至他的电影没有任何特殊引导作用。尽管《没人做得更好》被认为是一首好歌,但是由于上述原因它并没能进入榜单前五名。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 据《外交政策》网站报道,在通往世界杯奖杯的漫漫征程中,比利时和乌拉圭是夺冠热门球队希望避开的两座冰山。在今年的世界杯赛场上,尽管比利时和乌拉圭都是不起眼的小角色,但它们有能力让比盲目自信的对手喝上一壶。虽然它们是历史上的小国,地缘政治上的出气筒,但很明显,他们在足球场上仍然极具竞争力。
  • 前8个月北京住宅销售面积同比降二成
  • 难怪现代和当代艺术品拍卖市场的主要玩家佳士得拍卖行把自己的早期绘画大师作品重新宣传为“古典艺术品”。它将于明年4月(原先的计划是明年1月)在洛克菲勒中心(Rockefeller Center)举办早期绘画大师作品及其他历史作品拍卖会,其中包括20世纪作品专题拍卖会。周五(12月18日),佳士得称,它的“古典艺术品”拍卖计划将于明年7月在伦敦公布。
    面对批评,梅耶尔4月份接受本刊采访时为自己的决定进行了辩解,她说人们“错误地把这项措施视为行业条例。”她表示,自己需要员工在办公室工作,目的是鼓励他们进行合作与创新。目前看来,这个不同寻常的做法可能正在对雅虎产生积极影响——2012年梅耶尔上任以来,这家公司的股价已经上涨了一倍多。
  • 58集团10.68亿元投资我爱我家 将发起设立50亿元房地产行业基金
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 这些表情包恶搞的话题涉及恋童癖、虐待儿童、性侵害以及纳粹大屠杀。
    全部或者大多数政府部门将会迁移,行政大楼计划将在2017年建成。
  • But the duo topped the trending celebrities section followed by 'X Factor' judges Gary Barlow and Tulisa.
    Recent initiatives to support two-way tourism between the two countries include the trial of the 10-year visitor visa; the open aviation market services arrangement which removes all capacity restrictions for airlines on both sides; and a new Beijing to Sydney service by Qantas Airways which was launched in January.
  • “trustno1”(不相信任何人)毫无疑问也上榜了,排名第25。
    "This year is a key period for Tibet's war against poverty. We will continue mapping out policies and plans in accordance with varying situations and causes of poverty and increasing funds," said Lu.
  • 德国总体排名第四。"公民权益”排名第十。“创业精神”排名第一,“教育最佳国家”排名第三。
    在美国发起反倾销案件比在欧盟容易得多。在欧盟,企业必须先通过公众利益测试。
    瑞士、瑞典、英国再次占据榜单前三名。全球创新指数25强经济体中,有15个来自欧洲。
  • “The individual sent an email blast to the entire staff.”
    目前还不清楚绑架者的身份以及他们的目的。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 国外大牌会展查侵权 知识产权保护引中国企业反思 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

报告:未来3-5年银行业不良资产缓慢上升是大概率事件

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

深度分析|我国家居行业未来发展态势如何?

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

南国置业4日发生1笔大宗交易 成交4612.88万元

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

北京住建委等多部门联合约谈网站 规范房源信息发布

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 2.富国银行
  • 但是他告诉华盛顿报的记者他依然很希望能够读到这封信,毕竟这封信是当时的纯真、关切和真诚的见证。
  • 十二大关键词解读2015年LED照明行业发展现状

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 动物会根据美感做出选择。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Winners: Raptors
    Awards: Despite early wins for VW’s Golf GTI, the Detroit-centric jurors of the North American Car and Truck award 2015 prizes to Ford’s Mustang as well as Ford’s F-150 pickup truck.
    6.Put people first
  • The report also shows that despite the rising pension insurance balance since 2012, the payable number of months fell to 17.7 months last year from 19.7 months in 2012.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 1.Under no circumstances should you ask your taxi driver how excited he is about having the Olympics in London this summer. It's not that he will be reluctant or embarrassed to offer a personal opinion on the matter. That is not the problem at all.
  • 温州家具行业难过80亿关口 一些企业随时会倒下
  • Most of Friends was shot before cellular phones and Google were ubiquitous. The clothes and gadgets seem a bit outdated these days. Despite this, the show’s key elements still hold up remarkably well in the eyes of young viewers.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 新常态下照明灯饰行业发展之路在哪里?
  • Household substance abuse
  • 机构改革后,国家卫健委的“计生”司局不见了
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

木柜等家具未标原产地遭韩国进口商退运

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 购买二手房 认准品牌发展商开发物业为佳
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 解读2015年家具行业十大热点问题
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

综合考虑,这些事实与战略规划凸显了中国航天工业的认知——为了成为有竞争力的全球飞机制造商,中国需要拓宽行业的广度与深度。在他们掌握了价值链的两端——飞机设计与集成组装后,中国意识到长期处于价值链中游的组装和子系统地位将摧毁他们的航空业。这就是为什么中国雄心勃勃地与波音、空客等飞机制造商以及美国通用电气公司、劳斯莱斯等发动制造商竞争,形式前所未有地激烈。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

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n. 流通,循环,发行量,消息传播
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不过,随着纽约人日益习惯于共享经济,各处楼盘可能最终也不得不接受它。
"He (Premier Wen) underlined that China effectively countered the severe impact of the global financial crisis and has maintained steady and fast economic development. This allowed China to become the second-largest economy, almost doubling its GDP in five years."
Search giant Google has replaced iPhone makers Apple to be the world's most valuable company in the Brand Finance's Global 500 2017 report.
工业生产者出厂价格指数(PPI)通常被认为是中期通胀的代表,该指数仍留在负值区间,但下降速度有所放慢。
众所周知,蝙蝠侠的扮演者不再是克里斯汀·贝尔,而是肉肉的本·阿弗莱克。他将打败超人,拯救哥谭镇。
很多人相信,对于中国资源环境来讲,人口已不再是主要威胁。相反,中国的人口危机已转变成出生率过低,社会老龄化加剧以及性别比例失衡。在中国的珠江三角洲等地已经出现了技工短缺的现象,所以不久以后,我们可能将看到计生政策上的重大变革。
As for liberalization of global trade, we believe all countries need to work together to push it forward. This globe belongs to us all and we all need to do our bit.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

可穿戴市场“熄火” 智能家居未来命运如何?

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Chinese industrial profits slumped by a record 8 per cent last month, as Beijing’s targeted stimulus efforts failed to arrest a slowdown in the key driver of China’s economy.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 10月份,日本工业产出环比增长1.4%,是自1月份出现4.1%的增幅以来增长最快的一次。这一数字高于9月份1.1%的增幅,不过仍低于经济学家1.8%的增长预期。
  • 东方雨虹8亿投资福建 建设防水材料项目
  • 《美国队长3:内战》将于2016年5月6日在各大影院上映。美国队长与钢铁侠开战,你支持谁?
  • 2016年陶瓷砖十大品牌最新排行榜
  • 12) I often find myself worrying about something 0 1 2 3 4

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 广州国有建设用地基准地价出炉
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 7. "Suits" (2.6 million)
  • The group’s leader, Wang Rongzhen, told Reuters on Wednesday that the automaker has scaled back the range of models it supplies to dealers in Hyundai imports in China, only consistently supplying one model, while steadily increasing car manufacturing in China.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

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