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“皇城根”下的70年变迁:从城中村到“聚宝盆”

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 房租暴涨正惩罚不买房的人?资本抬租抢房?监管部门出手了 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

近三年LED行业重大并购终止案知多少?

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Supporting Actor in a Limited Series or Movie: Sterling K. Brown, “The People v. O. J. Simpson: American Crime Story”
[pr?'tekn]
The 2017 rankings feature the top 60 pre-experience courses for students with little or no background in the industry and the top six post-experience programmes for professionals already working in the sector. Only a handful of schools offer post-experience courses.
优秀老板看起来都会拥有的一个关键是:他们都是解决问题的高手。他们不仅能够发现问题,并能头脑风暴出成功创新的方法来解决问题。
世界知识产权组织总干事弗朗西斯·居里表示:“投资创新是提高长期经济增长的关键。在当前的经济形势下,发现新的增长来源并利用全球创新所带来的机会是所有利益相关者的优先事项。”
Andy Murray's US Open victory and Olympic gold medal helped him to become the most searched-for British Olympian.
Taylor Swift vs. Katy Perry

他表示:“今明两年,美国经济增长可能会在3%以上。欧洲终于在复苏。日本也正取得重大进展。印度、中国和印尼等新兴经济体以及其他国家的经济增速,可能会继续保持在高水平,还可能会加速。”
Behind the facade of many a New York City apartment building is the dissonant sound of residents complaining. The gripes that make their way to the inbox of my Ask Real Estate column offer a glimpse into how residents cope with the myriad irritations that come with living in cramped and costly homes. They include the co-op shareholder horrified by a neighbor’s rats’ nest; the parents whose building has barred them from using a stroller in the elevator; and the renter whose kitchen cabinets fell from the walls.
It might be that bit too far from the mainstream to make a huge awards impact.
British statisticians’ unwillingness to correct known errors in the clothing price component of the RPI redistributes many billions every year from students, recent graduates, taxpayers and rail commuters to index-linked UK government bondholders, wealthy pensioners with RPI-linked pensions and rail companies.
Industry Kitchen的行政主厨布劳略?布耐对《城里城外》杂志表示,这份披萨的灵感来源于纽约的金融区,他将那里称为“堕落的缩影”。

Footnotes

  • 5月全国宅地总价前十位 长三角城市独揽九席
  • 斯坦福大学的Zhenan Baohas 研发出了一种具备超弹性、超耐性和超敏感的材料,能够作为未来发展人工皮肤的基础。以前,人们也研究过生化皮肤,但是Baohas的材料比以前研发出来的更具敏感性。它带有有机转换物质和一层弹性材料,保证它在不被破坏情况下的延展性。另外,这种材料带有一系列的太阳能电池元件,可以自动充电。

单词virtue 联想记忆:
斯德哥尔摩经济学院(Stockholm School of Economics)是今年排行榜上的大赢家,该学校的排名攀升16个位次,排在第28位,不仅排名晋升速度为年度最快,而且扭转了去年排名下滑11位的局面。
马纳尔·阿尔-谢里夫最有名的,是挑战她的祖国压制女性的法律和习俗。
她笔下的人物们觉得自己为了登上“美国梦”的山巅,经历了漫长的排队等候,但是上山的队伍放慢了速度,甚至停顿下来了。而那些移民、黑人和其他“外来者”似乎还在插队。
麦高恩出生于多配偶制的邪教家庭,少年时离家出走。
一有机会就炫一下小卷毛。

春节终于没了智能马桶盖刷屏 厕所革命却未终结

References

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